Annual report 2016

General information
Ferd is a family-owned Norwegian investment-company committed to value-creating ownership of businesses and investments in financial assets. In addition to the Group’s purely commercial activities, Ferd has an extensive involvement in social entrepreneurship. Ferd AS is located in Strandveien 50, Lysaker.
Ferd is owned by Johan H. Andresen and his family. Andresen is the Chair of the Board.
The Company's financial statements for 2016 were approved by the Board of Directors on 10 May 2017.
Basis for the preparation of the consolidated financial statements
Ferd AS' consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as approved by the EU.
Summary of the most significant accounting principles
The most significant accounting principles applied in the preparation of the financial statements are described below. The accounting principles are consistent for similar transactions in the reporting periods presented, if not otherwise stated.
Consolidation and consolidated financial statements
The consolidated financial statements show the overall financial results and the overall financial position for the parent company Ferd AS and entities where Ferd has direct or indirect control. Ferd has control over an investment if Ferd has the decision power over the enterprise in which it has been invested, is exposed to or is entitled to a variable return from the enterprise, and at the same time has the opportunity to use this decision power over the enterprise to influence on the variable return.
Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries are disclosed as part of equity, but separated from the equity that can be attributed to the shareholders of Ferd AS. The non-controlling interests are either measured at fair value or at the proportionate share of identified net assets and liabilities. The principle for measuring non-controlling interests is determined separately for each business combination.
Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date when the Group achieves control, and are excluded when such control ceases. Should there be a change in ownership in a subsidiary without any change of control, the change is accounted for as an equity transaction. The difference between the compensation and the carrying value of the non-controlling interests is recognised directly in equity and allocated to the shareholders of Ferd AS. At a loss of control, the subsidiary's assets, liabilities, non-controlling interests and any accumulated currency differences are derecognised. Any remaining owner interests at the date of the loss of control are measured at fair value, and gain or loss is recognised in the income statement.
Inter-company transactions, balances and unrealised internal gains are eliminated. When required, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring their accounting principles in line with those used by the Group.
Business combinations
Business combinations are accounted for by the acquisition method. This implies the identification of the acquiring company, the determination of the date for the take-over, the recognition and measurement of identifiable acquired assets, liabilities and any non-controlling interests in the acquired company taken over, and the recognition and measurement of goodwill or gain from an acquisition made on favourable terms.
Assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities taken over or incurred are measured at fair value at the acquisition date. Goodwill is recognised as the total of the fair value of the consideration, including the value of the non-controlling interests and the fair value of former owner shares, less net identifiable assets in the business combination. Direct costs connected with the acquisition are recognised in the income statement.
Any contingent consideration from the Group is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Changes in the value of the contingent consideration considered to be a financial liability pursuant to IAS 39, are recognised in the income statement when incurred. In step-by-step business combinations, the Group’s former stake is measured at fair value at the date of the take-over. Any adjustments in value are recognised in the income statement.
Discontinued operations
In the event that an agreement has been made to dispose of a significant part of the Group’s operations, this business is presented as "discontinued operations" on a separate line in the income statement and balance sheet. As a consequence, all other presented amounts are exclusive of the "discontinued operations". Comparable figures for income and expenses are restated in the accounts and notes. Comparable figures for balance sheet items and the statement of cash flows are not restated.
Investments in associates and joint ventures
Associates are entities over which the Group has significant influence, but not control. Significant influence implies that the Group is involved in strategic decisions concerning the company’s finances and operations without controlling these decisions. Significant influence normally exists for investments where the Group holds between 20 % and 50 % of the voting capital.
A joint venture is a contractual arrangement requiring unanimous agreement between the owners about strategic, financial and operational decisions.
Investments in associates and joint ventures are classified as non-current assets in the balance sheet.
The exemption from using the equity method in IAS 28 for investments in associated companies and joint ventures owned by investing entities is the basis for presenting the investments in the business area Ferd Capital. These investments are recognised at fair value with value changes over profit and loss, and are classified as current assets in the balance sheet.
Other investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for by the equity method, i.e., the Group’s share of the associates’ profit or loss is disclosed on a separate line in the income statement. The carrying amount of the investment is added to Ferd's share of total comprehensive income in the investment. The accounting principles are adjusted to bring them in line with those of the Group. The carrying amount of investments in associates is classified as “Investments accounted for by the equity method” and includes goodwill identified at the date of acquisition, reduced by any subsequent write-downs.
Sales income
The Group’s consolidated revenue mainly comprises the sale of a wide range of goods to manufacturing companies as well as to consumers, services to the oil sector, IT services and deliveries of packaging and packaging systems.
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the potential for earnings and losses has been transferred to the buyer, when income from the sale can be expected and the amount can be reliably measured. Revenue from the sale of services is recognised according to the service’s level of completion, provided the progress of the service and its income and costs can be reliably measured. Should the contract contain several elements, revenue from each element is recognised separately, provided that the transfer of risk and control can be separately assessed. Contracts concerning the sale of filling machines and packaging are commercially connected, and revenue is therefore recognised in total for the contract.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the compensation and presented net of discounts, value added tax and similar taxes.
At the sale of intangible and tangible assets, gain or loss is calculated by comparing the proceeds with the residual carrying value of the sold asset. Calculated gain/loss is included in operating income or expenses, respectively.
Foreign currency translation
Transactions in foreign currency in the individual Group entities are recognised and measured in the functional currency of the entity at the transaction date. Monetary items in foreign currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate prevailing at the balance sheet date. Gain and loss arising from changes in foreign currency is recognised in the income statement with the exception of currency differences on loans in foreign currencies hedging a net investment, and inter-company balances considered to be part of the net investment. These differences are recognised as other income in total comprehensive income until the investment is disposed of.
The consolidated financial statements are presented in Norwegian kroner (NOK), which is the functional currency of the parent company. When a subsidiary in foreign currency is consolidated, income and expense items are translated into Norwegian kroner at an average weighted exchange rate throughout the year. For balance sheet items, including excess values and goodwill, the exchange rate prevailing at thebalance sheet date is used. Exchange differences arising when consolidating foreign subsidiaries are recognised in total comprehensive income until the subsidiary is disposed of.
Loan expenses
Loan expenses that are directly attributable to the acquisition, manufacturing or production of an asset requiring a long time to be completed before it can be used, are added to the acquisition cost for the asset. For investment properties measured at fair value, Ferd is also capitalising loan expenses incurred in the development period. Ferd is capitalising loan expenses from the starting date for the preparation of the asset for its intended use and the loan expenses begin to incur. The capitalisation continues until these activities have been completed. Should the development be put temporarily on hold, the loan expenses are not capitalised during this period.
Classification of financial instruments
Financial instruments constitute a substantial part of Ferd’s consolidated accounts and are of considerable significance for the overall financial standing and result of the Group. Financial assets and liabilities are recognised when the Group becomes a party to the contractual obligations and rights of the instrument. Pursuant to IAS 39, all Ferd’s financial instruments are initially classified in the following categories:
1.  Financial instruments at fair value and with changes in value recognised over profit and loss
2.  Loans and receivables
3.  Financial liabilities
Financial instruments are classified as held for trading and as part of category 1. Derivatives are classified as held for trading unless they are part of a hedging instrument, another asset or liability. Assets held for trading are classified as current assets.
Financial instruments at fair value with value changes in the income statement pursuant to IAS 39 can also be classified in accordance with the "fair value option" in IAS 28.18. The instrument must initially be recognised at fair value with value changes over profit and loss and also meet certain criteria. The key assumption for applying the “fair value option” is that a group of financial assets and liabilities are managed on a fair value basis, and that management evaluates the earnings following the same principle.
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments not quoted in an active market. They are classified as current assets, unless they are expected to be realised more than 12 months after the balance sheet date. Loans and receivables are presented as trade receivables, other receivables and bank deposits in the balance sheet.
Financial liabilities not included in the category held for trading and not measured at “fair value over profit and loss” are classified as other liabilities. Trade payables and other liabilities are classified as current if the debt is due within one year or is part of the ordinary operating cycle. Debt arisen by utilising Ferd's loan facility is presented as long-term if Ferd both has the opportunity and the intention to revolve the debt more than 12 months.
Recognition, measurement and presentation of financial instruments in the income statement and statement of financial position
Purchases and sales of financial instrument transactions are recognised on the date of the agreement. Financial instruments are derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire or have been transferred to another party. Correspondingly, financial instruments are derecognised when the Group on the whole has transferred the risk and reward of the ownership.
Financial instruments at “fair value over profit and loss” are initially measured at quoted prices at the balance sheet date or estimated on the basis of measurable market information available at the balance sheet date. Transaction costs are recognised in the income statement. In subsequent periods, the financial instruments are presented at fair value based on market values or generally accepted calculation methods. Changes in value are recognised in the income statement.
Loans and receivables are initially measured at fair value with the addition of direct transactions costs. In subsequent periods, the assets and liabilities are measured at amortised cost by using the effective interest method, less any decline in value. A provision for a decline in value is made for actual and possible losses on receivables. The Group regularly reviews receivables and prepares estimates for losses, as the basis for the provisions in the financial statements. Losses from declines in value are recognised in the income statement.
Financial obligations classified as other liabilities are measured at amortised cost by using the effective interest method.
Gain and loss from the realisation of financial instruments, changes in fair values and interest income are recognised in the income statement in the period they arise. Dividend income is recognised when the Group has the legal right to receive payment. Net income related to financial instruments is classified as operating income and presented as “Income from financial investments” in the income statement.
Financial derivatives and hedge accounting
The Group applies financial derivatives to reduce the financial loss from exposures to unfavourable changes in exchange rates or interest rates. Financial derivatives related to a highly probable planned transaction (cash flow hedges) are recognised in accordance with the principles for hedge accounting when the hedge has been documented and meets the relevant requirements for effectiveness. Ferd is not applying hedge accounting for derivatives acquired to reduce risk in an asset or liabilities recognised in the balance sheet. Derivatives not qualified for hedge accounting are classified as financial instruments at fair value, and changes in value are recognised in the income statement.
Cash flow hedging is presented by recognising a change in fair value of the financial derivative applied as cash flow hedging as other income and expenses in total comprehensive income until the underlying transaction is accounted for. The ineffective portion of the hedge is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
When the hedge instrument expires or is disposed of, the planned transaction is carried out or when the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the accumulated effect of the hedging is recognised in the income statement.
Income taxes
The income tax expense includes tax payable and changes in deferred tax. Income tax on other income and expenses items in total comprehensive income is also recognised in total comprehensive income, and tax on balances related to equity transactions are set off against equity.
The tax payable for the period is calculated according to the tax rates and regulations ruling at the end of the reporting period. Tax payable for the period is calculated on the tax basis deviating from profit before tax as a consequence of amounts that shall be recognised as income or expense in another period (temporary differences) or balances never to be subject to tax (permanent differences)
Deferred tax is calculated on temporary differences between book and tax values of assets and liabilities and the tax effects of losses to carry forward in the consolidated financial statements at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities associated with the initial recognition of goodwill in business combinations are not carried in the balance sheet, nor is deferred tax recognised in the balance sheet on the initial recognition of the acquisition of investment properties, if the purchase of a subsidiary with an investment property is considered as an acquisition of a separate asset.
Deferred tax assets are only recognised in the balance sheet to the extent that it is probable that there will be future taxable profits to utilise the benefits of the tax reducing temporary differences. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are calculated according to the tax rates and regulations ruling at the end of the reporting period and at nominal amounts. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognised net when the Group has a legal right to net assets and liabilities.
Goodwill is the difference between the cost of an acquisition and the fair value of the Group’s share of net assets in the acquired business at the acquisition date. Goodwill arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries is classified as intangible assets.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually, or more often if there are indications of impairment, and carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Impairment losses on goodwill are not reversed.
Goodwill arising on the acquisition of a share in an associate is included in the carrying amount of the investment and tested for impairment as part of the carrying amount of the investment. Gain or loss arising from the realisation of a business includes goodwill allocated to the business sold.
For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to the relevant cash-generating units. The allocation is made to the cash-generating units or groups of units expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are initially carried at cost. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognised at their fair value at the time of the combination. In subsequent periods, intangible costs are recognised at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment.
Intangible assets with a definite economic life are depreciated over their expected useful life. Normally, straight-line depreciation methods are applied, as this generally reflects the use of the assets in the most appropriate manner. This applies for intangible assets like software, customer relations, patents and rights and capitalised development costs. Intangible assets with an indefinite life are not depreciated, but tested for impairment annually. Some of the Group’s capitalised brands have indefinite economic lives.
Research, development and other in-house generated intangible assets
Expenses relating to research activities are recognised in the income statement as they arise.
In-house generated intangible assets arising from development are recognised in the balance sheet only if all the following conditions are met:
1)  The asset can be identified.
2)  Ferd intends to, and has the ability to, complete the intangible asset, including the fact that Ferd has adequate technical, financial and other resources to finalise the development and to use or sell the intangible asset.    
3)  The technical assumptions for completing the intangible asset are known.    
4)  It is probable that the asset will generate future cash flows.    
5)  The development costs can be reliably measured.
In-house generated intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives from the date when the assets are available for use. When the requirements for capitalisation no longer exist, the expenses are recognised in the income statement as incurred.
Tangible assets
Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. The cost includes expenses directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset, including loan costs. Expenses incurred after the acquisition are recognised as assets when future economic benefits are expected to arise from the asset and can be reliably measured. Current maintenance is expensed.
Tangible assets are depreciated systematically over their expected useful lives, normally on a straight-line basis. When such assets have been capitalised under financial leasing, they are depreciated over the shorter of useful life and agreed lease period. If indications of impairment exist, the asset is tested for impairment.
Tangible and intangible assets that are depreciated are considered for impairment when there are indications to the effect that future earnings cannot support the carrying amount. If there are indicators on a possible decline in value, an evaluation of impairment is made. Intangible assets with undefined useful lives and goodwill are not depreciated, but evaluated annually for impairment.
In the assessment of a decline in value, the first step is to calculate or estimate the assets' recoverable amount. Should it not be possible to calculate the recoverable amount for an individual asset, the recoverable amount for the cash-generating unit of which the asset is part, is calculated. A cash-generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets generating incoming cash-flows not depending on incoming cash-flows from other assets or groups of assets.
The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Fair value less costs to less is the amount that can be recovered at a sale of an asset in a transaction performed at arm’s length between well informed and voluntary parties, less costs to sell. The value in use is the present value of future cash flows expected to be generated by an asset or a cash-generating unit. In the event that the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, the difference is recognised as a write-down. Write-downs are subsequently reversed when the impairment indicator no longer exists.
Leases are classified either as operating or finance leases based on the actual content of the agreements. Leases under which the lessee assumes a substantial part of risk and return are classified as finance leases. Other leases are classified as operating leases.
The object and liability of finance leases with the Group as the lessee is initially recognised at the lower of the object’s fair value and the present value of the minimum lease. Lease payments are apportioned between the liability and finance cost in order to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Variable and contingent lease amounts are recognised as operating costs in the income statement as they incur. Lease objects related to finance lease agreements are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term, provided that the Group will not assume ownership by the end of the lease term.
Finance leases with the Group as the lessor are initially recognised at the beginning of the period as a receivable equal to the Group’s net investment in the lease agreement. The lease payments are apportioned between the repayment of the main balance and finance income. The finance income is calculated and recognised as a constant periodical return on the net investment over the lease period. Direct costs incurred in connection with the lease agreement are included in the value of the asset.
Leasing costs in operating leases are charged to the income statement when incurred and are classified as other operating expenses.
Investment property
Investment properties are acquired to achieve a long-term return on letting out or an increase in value, or both. Investment properties are measured at cost at the acquisition date, including transaction costs. In subsequent periods, investment properties are measured at their assumed fair value.
Fair value is the price we would have achieved at a sale of the property in a well organised transaction to an external party, carried out on the balance sheet date. Fair value is either based on observable market values, which in reality requires a bid on the property, or a calculation considering rental income from closed lease contracts, an assumption of the future lease level based on the market situation on the balance sheet date and also all available information about the property and the market on which it will be sold, based on market prices. An assumption at the calculation is that the property is utilised in the best possible manner, i.e. in a manner achieving most profit.
Revenue from investment properties includes the period’s net change in value of the properties together with rental income of the period less property related costs in the same period. Such revenue is classified as other operating income.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The costs of inventories are determined on a first-in-first-out basis. The cost of finished goods and goods in progress consists of costs related to product design, consumption of materials, direct wages and other direct costs. The net realisable value is the estimated selling price less estimated variable expenses for completion and sale.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash, bank deposits and other short-term and easily realisable investments that will fall due within 3 months. Restricted funds are also included. Drawings on bank overdraft are presented as current liabilities to credit institutions in the balance sheet. In the statement of cash flows, the overdraft facility is included in cash and cash equivalents.
Pension costs and pension funds/obligations
Defined benefit plans
A defined benefit plan is a pension scheme defining the pension payment that an employee will receive at the time of retirement. The pension is normally determined as a part of the employee's salary. The Group's net obligation from defined benefit pension plans is calculated separately for each scheme. The obligation is calculated by an actuary and represents an estimate of future retirement benefits that the employees have earned at the balance sheet date as a consequence of their service in the present and former periods. The benefits are discounted to present value reduced by the fair value of the pension funds.
The portion of the period's net cost that comprises the current year's pension earnings, curtailment and settlement of pension schemes, plan changes and accrued social security tax is included in payroll costs in the period during which the employee has worked and thereby earned the pension rights. The net interest expense on the pension obligation less expected return on the pension funds is charged to the income statement as finance costs in the same period. Positive and negative estimate deviations are recognised as other income and costs in total comprehensive income in the period when they were identified.
Changes in defined benefit obligations due to changes in pension schemes are recognised over the estimated average remaining service period when the changes are not immediately recognised. Gain or loss on a curtailment or settlement of a benefit plan is recognised in the result when the curtailment or settlement occurs. A curtailment occurs when the Group decides to reduce significantly the number of employees covered by a plan or amends the terms of a defined benefit plan to the effect that a significant part of the current employees’ future earnings no longer qualify for benefits or will qualify for reduced benefits only.
Defined contribution plans
Obligations to make contributions to contribution based pension plans are recognised as costs in the income statement when the employees have rendered services entitling them to the contribution.
A provision is recognised when the Group has an obligation as a result of previous events, it is probable that a financial settlement will take place and the amount can be reliably measured. The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, discounted at present value if the discount effect is significant.
Dividend proposed by the Board is classified as equity in the financial statements and recognised as a liability only when it has been approved by the shareholders in a Shareholders' Meeting.
Ferd reports segments in line with IFRS 8. Ferd is an investment company, and management makes decisions, is following up and evaluates the decisions based on the development in value and fair value of the Company's investment. Ferd distinguishes between business areas based on investment type/mandate, capital allocation, resource allocation and risk assessment.
Cash flow statement
The cash flow statement has been prepared using the indirect method, implying that the basis used is the Group’s profit before tax to present cash flows generated by operating activities, investing activities and financing activities, respectively.
Related parties
Parties are considered to be related when one of the parties has the control, joint control or significant influence over another party. Parties are also related if they are subject to a third party’s joint control, or one party can be subject to significant influence and the other joint control. A person or member of a person’s family is related when he or she has control, joint control or significant influence over the business. Companies controlled by or being under joint control by key executives are also considered to be related parties. All related party transactions are completed in accordance with written agreements and established principles.
New accounting standards according to IFRS
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and International Financial Reporting Standards - Interpretations Committee (IFRIC), effective for accounting years starting on 1 January 2016 or earlier.
New and amended standards implemented by Ferd effective from the accounting year 2016
Ferd has not implemented any new standards in 2016.
New and amended standards not yet implemented by Ferd
IFRS 9 Financial instruments
IFRS 9 will replace the current IAS 39. The project is divided in several phases. The first phase concerns classification and measurement. The classification and measurement requirements for financial liabilities in IAS 39 are on the whole continued. The use of amortised cost and fair value is continued as a basis for measurement. Concretely defined instruments must be measured at amortised cost or at fair value with value changes over other comprehensive income. All other instrument shall be measured at fair value with value changes over profit and loss.
Phase 2 concerns impairment of financial instruments, and the changes include a twist from making provisions for incurred losses to expected losses. Consequently, the new standard does not require a concrete loss event for making a provision for a credit loss. Provisions shall be made for estimated losses, and changes in these estimates shall also be recognised in the income statement on a current basis. The changes will have particular consequences for banks and lending businesses, but also for Ferd, as the Group has significant receivables from the sale of goods and services that are partly expected to be affected.
Phase 3 concerns hedge accounting, and the rules in IFRS 9 are considerably more flexible than in IAS 39. Several types of instruments qualify as hedging instruments, more types of risk can be hedged, and even more importantly, the strong effectiveness requirements in IAS 39 have been modified. Instead of testing the effectiveness, IFRS 9 introduces a principle of a qualitative financial connection between a hedging instrument, the hedged object and risk. On the other hand, several new note requirements related to the enterprise's hedging strategy have been added.
The implementation date for IFRS 9 is determined to accounting years starting on 1 January 2018. Ferd will implement the standard when it becomes mandatory and is not expecting any signficant effects from the implementation of the standard.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers              
IFRS 15 is a joint standard for the recognition of income from customers and replaces IAS 18Revenue, IAS 11 Construction Contracts, IFRS 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes, IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate, IFRIC 18 Transfers of Assets from Customers and SIC 31 Revenue – Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services. IFRS 15 only concerns income from contracts with customers. Revenue relating to liability and equity instruments previously regulated by IAS 18, is moved to IAS 39 (and IFRS 9 when implemented).    
The main principle of IFRS 15 is that the recognition of income shall be made in such a manner that it correctly demonstrates how the compensation for deliveries of goods and services is recognised by the enterprise. IFRS 15 introduces a 5 step model for revenue recognition, whereby customer contracts shall be identified and decomposed in separate delivery terms to be priced and recognised separately.
The standard is effective for accounting years starting on 1 January 2018, and Ferd will implement IFRS 15 when it beomes mandatory.
IFRS 16 Leases
IFRS 16 replaces the existing IFRS for leases, IAS 17 Leases. IFRS 16 states the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure for both parties in a lease agreement, i.e., the customer (lessee) and supplier (lessor). The new standard requires that the lessee recognises assets and liabilities for most lease agreements, which is a significant change from today's principles. For the lessor, IFRS 16 principally carries the existing principles in IAS 17 forward, i.e., lessors shall continue to classify leases as operating or finance lease agreements and account for them differently.
The new standard is effective for the accounting year starting on 1 January 2019, and Ferd will apply IFRS 16 when it becomes mandatory.As a consequence of implementing the standard, the present value of operating lease commitments shall be recognised in the balance shseet. The nominal value of operating lease commitments is NOK 2.5 billion as at 31 December 2016, cf. note 30.

Strandveien 50
1324 Lysaker

Postbox 34
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Fax 67 10 80 01

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