Annual report 2016

General information
Ferd is a family-owned Norwegian investment-company committed to value-creating ownership of businesses and investments in financial assets. In addition to the Group’s commercial activities, Ferd has an extensive involvement in social entrepreneurship. Ferd AS is located in Strandveien 50, Lysaker.
Ferd is owned by Johan H. Andresen and his family. Andresen is the Chair of the Board.
The Company's financial statements for 2016 were approved by the Board of Directors on 10 May 2017.
Basis for the preparation of the financial statements
Ferd AS’ financial statements are prepared in accordance with the Norwegian Accounting Act section 3-9 and regulation on simplified application of international accounting standards.
Summary of the most significant accounting principles
The most significant accounting principles applied in the preparation of the financial statements are described below. The accounting principles are consistent for similar transactions in the reporting periods presented, if not otherwise stated.
Investments in subsidiaries
Subsidiaries are companies where the parent company Ferd AS has direct or indirect control. Ferd has control over an investment if Ferd has the decision power over the enterprise in which it has invested, is exposed to or entitled to a variable return from the enterprise, and at the same time has the opportunity to use this decision power over the enterprise to influence on the variable return
Subsidiaries are classified as tangible assets in the balance sheet and measured at fair value. Value changes on subsidiaries, current returns like dividend and gain or loss on the realisation of subsidiaries are recognised as net operating income in the income statement.
Investments in associated companies and joint ventures
Associates are entities over which Ferd has significant influence, but not control. Significant influence implies that Ferd is involved in strategic decisions concerning the company’s finances and operations without controlling these decisions. Significant influence normally exists for investments where Ferd holds between 20 % and 50 % of the voting capital.
A joint venture is a contractual arrangement requiring unanimous agreement between the owners about strategic, financial and operational decisions.
Investments in associates and joint ventures are recognised at fair value with value changes through profit or loss and classified as current assets in the balance sheet. Value changes on the investments, current returns like dividend and gain or loss on the realisation of investments are recognised as net operating income in the income statement.
Revenue recognition
The Company's revenue mainly includes rendering services to other group companies and other related parties. Income from the sale of services is recognised according to the service's level of completion, provided the progress of the service and its income and costs can be reliably measured.
Revenue is recognised at fair value of the compensation and presented net of discounts, VAT and other types of public duties. Sales income is presented as Other income in the income statement.
Foreign currency translation
The financial statements are presented in Norwegian kroner (NOK),which is the functional currency of Ferd AS. Transactions in foreign currency are recognised and measured in NOK at the date of the transaction. Monetary items in foreign currency are translated to NOK on the basis of the exchange rate at the date of the balance sheet. Gain and loss due to currency changes is recognised in the result.
Classification of financial instruments
Financial instruments constitute a substantial part of Ferd’s balance sheet and are of considerable significance for the Company's financial position and result. Financial assets and liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual obligations and rights of the instrument. All financial instruments are classified in the following categories, pursuant to IAS 39, at their initial recognition:
1)   Financial instruments at fair value and with changes in value recognised over profit and loss
2)   Loans and receivables
3)   Financial liabilities
Financial instruments are classified as held for trading and included in category 1 Derivatives are classified as held for trading and as current assets. The carrying value of interest derivatives is presented as investments in interest-bearing debt in the balance sheet.
Financial instruments at fair value with value changes over profit and loss pursuant to IAS 39 can also be classified in accordance with the "fair value option" in IAS 28.18. The instrument must initially be recognised at fair value with value changes over profit and loss and also meet certain criteria. The key assumption for applying the “fair value option” is that a group of financial assets and liabilities are managed on a fair value basis, and that management evaluates the earnings following the same principle.
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments not quoted in an active market. They are classified as current assets, unless they are expected to be realised more than 12 months after the balance sheet date. Loans and receivables are presented as trade receivables, other receivables and bank deposits in the balance sheet.
Financial liabilities that are not included in the category held for trading and not measured at “fair value through profit and loss”, are classified as other liabilities. Trade payables and other liabilities are classified as current if the debt is due within one year or is part of the ordinary operating cycle. Debt arisen by utilising Ferd's loan facility is presented as long-term if Ferd both has the opportunity and the intention to revolve the debt more than 12 months.
Recognition, measurement and presentation of financial instruments in the income statement and balance sheet
Purchases and sales of financial instruments are recognised on the date of the agreement, which is when the Company has made a commitment to buy or dispose of the financial instrument. Financial instruments are derecognised when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire or are transferred to another party. Correspondingly, the financial instruments are derecognised when the Company has transferred most of the risks and rewards connected with the ownership.
Financial instruments at “fair value over profit and loss” are initially measured at quoted prices at the balance sheet date or estimated on the basis of measurable market information available at the balance sheet date. Transaction costs are recognised in the income statement. In subsequent periods, the financial instruments are presented at fair value based on market values or generally accepted calculation methods. Value changes are recognised in the income statement.
Borrowings and receivables are initially measured at fair value with the addition of direct transaction costs. In subsequent periods, the assets and liabilities are measured at amortised cost by using the effective interest method less any decline in value. A provision for a decline in value is made for actual and possible losses on receivables. Ferd regularly reviews receivables and prepares estimates for losses as the basis for the provisions in the financial statements. Losses on loans and receivables are recognised in the income statement.
Financial liabilities classified as other liabilities are measured at amortised cost by using the effective interest method.
Gain and losses from the realisation of financial instruments, changes in fair values and interest income are recognised in the income statement in the period they arise. Dividend and group contribution is recognised as income in the year before it is approved in the Annual General Meeting. This also applies for tax effects of such transactions. Net income related to financial instruments is classified as operating income in the income statement.
Financial derivatives and hedge accounting
Ferd can apply financial derivatives to reduce any potential loss from exposures to unfavourable changes in exchange rates or interest rates. The derivatives are recognised as financial instruments at fair value, and the the value changes are recognised in the income statement. Ferd AS does not apply hedge accounting in the parent company financial statements.
Income taxes
The income tax expense includes tax payable and changes in deferred tax. Income tax on other income and expense items in other comprehensive income is also recognised in total comprehensive income, and tax on balances related to equity transactions are set off against equity.
The tax payable for the period is calculated according to the tax rates and regulations ruling at the end of the reporting period. Tax payable for the period is calculated on the tax basis, which deviates from the "Profit before tax" as a consequence of amounts that shall be recognised as income or expense in another period (temporary differences) or income statement amounts never to be subject to tax (permanent differences).
Deferred tax is calculated on temporary differences between book and tax values of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and any tax effects of losses carried forward at the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets are only recognised in the balance sheet to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits to utilise the benefits of the tax reducing temporary differences. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are calculated according to the tax rates and regulations ruling at the end of the reporting period and at nominal amounts. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognised net when the Company has a legal right to net assets and liabilities, and is able to and intend to settle the tax obligation net.
Tangible assets
Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. The cost includes expenses directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. Expenses incurred after the acquisition are recognised as assets when future economic benefits are expected to arise from the asset and can be reliably measured, whereas current maintenance is expensed.
Tangible assets are depreciated systematically over their expected useful lives, normally on a straight-line basis. If indications of impairment exist, the asset is tested for impairment.
Tangible assets are considered for impairment when there are indications to the effect that future earnings cannot support the carrying amount.
In the assessment of a decline in value, the first step is to calculate or estimate the assets' recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Fair value less costs to sell is the amount that can be achieved at a sale of an asset in a transaction performed at arm’s length between well informed and voluntary parties, less costs to sell. The value in use is the present value of future cash flows expected to be generated by an asset or a cash-generating unit.
In the event that the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, the difference is recognised as a write-down. Impairment losses are subsequently reversed when the impairment indicator no longer exists.
Leases are classified either as operating or finance leases based on the actual content of the agreements. Leases under which the lessee assumes a substantial part of risk and return are classified as finance leases. All Ferd AS' present leases are classified as operating leases.
Leasing costs in operating leases are charged to the income statement when incurred and classified as other operating expenses.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash, bank deposits and other short-term and easily realisable investments that will fall due within 3 months, also including restricted funds. Bank overdraft is presented as short-term debt to finance institutions in the balance sheet. In the statement of cash flows, the overdraft facility is included in cash and cash equivalents.
Pension costs and pension funds/obligations
Defined benefit plans
A defined benefit plan is a pension scheme defining the pension payment an employee will receive at the time of retirement. The pension is normally determined as a part of the employee's salary. The Company's net obligation from defined benefit pension plans is calculated separately for each scheme. The obligation is calculated by an actuary and represents an estimate of future retirement benefits that the employees have earned at the balance sheet date as a consequence of their service in the present and former period. The benefits are discounted to present value reduced by the fair value of the pension funds.
The portion of the period's net cost that comprises the current year's pension earnings, curtailment and settlement of pension schemes, plan changes and accrued social security tax is included in payroll costs in the period during which the employees have worked and thereby earned the pension rights. The net interest expense on the pension obligation less expected return on the pension funds is charged to the income statement as finance costs in the same period. Positive and negative estimate deviations are recognised as other income and costs in total comprehensive income in the period when they were identified.
Changes in defined benefit obligations due to changes in pension schemes are recognised over the estimated average remaining service period when the changes are not immediately recognised. Gain or loss on a curtailment or settlement of a plan is recognised in the result when the curtailment or settlement occurs. A curtailment occurs when the Company decides to reduce significantly the number of employees covered by a plan or amends the terms of a defined benefit plan to the effect that a significant part of the current employees’ future earnings no longer qualify for benefits or will qualify for reduced benefits only.
Defined contribution plans
Obligations to make contributions to contribution based pension plans are recognised as costs in the income statement when the employees have rendered services entitling them to the contribution.
A provision is recognised when the Company has an obligation as a result of a previous event, it is probable that a financial settlement will take place and the amount can be reliably measured. The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, discounted at present value if the discount effect is significant.
Dividend and group contribution proposed by the Board is recognised as current liabilities pursuant to the exemption in the regulation to the Norwegian Accounting Act section 3-9.
Segment reporting
Ferd reports business areas in line with IFRS 8. Ferd is an investment company, and management makes decisions, is following up and evaluates the decisions based on the development in value and fair value of the Company's investment. Ferd distinguishes between business areas based on investment type/mandate, capital allocation, resource allocation and risk assessment.
Statements of cash flows
The cash flow statement has been prepared using the direct method, i.e., the statement presents the Company’s actual payments and disbursements in order to show the cash flows from ordinary operations, investing and financing activities, respectively.
Related parties
Parties are considered to be related when one of the parties has the control, joint control or significant influence over another party. Parties are also related if they are subject to a third party’s control, or one party can be subject to significant influence and the other to joint control. A person or member of a person’s family is related when he or she has control, joint control or significant influence over the business. Companies controlled by or being under joint control by key executives are also considered to be related parties. All related party transactions are carried in accordance with written agreements and established principles.
New accounting standards according to IFRS
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with standards approved by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and International Financial Reporting Standards - Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) effective for accounting years starting on 1 January 2016 or earlier.
New and amended standards applied by Ferd effective from the accounting year 2016
Ferd has not implemented any new standards in 2016.
New and amended standards not implemented by Ferd
IFRS 9 Financial instruments
IFRS 9 will replace the current IAS 39. The project is divided in several phases. The first phase concerns classification and measurement. The classification and measurement requirements for financial liabilities in IAS 39 are on the whole continued. The use of amortised cost and fair value is continued as a basis for measurement. Concretely defined instruments must be measured at amortised cost or at fair value with value changes in other comprehensive income. All other instruments shall be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit and loss.
Phase 2 concerns impairment of financial instruments, and the changes include a twist from making provisions for incurred losses to expected losses. Consequently, the new standard does not require a concrete loss event for making a provision for a credit loss. Losses shall be made for estimated losses, and changes in these estimates shall also be recognised in the income statement on a current basis. The changes will have particular consequences for banks and lending businesses.
Phase 3 concerns hedge accounting, and the rules in IFRS 9 are considerably more flexible than in IAS 39. Several types of instruments qualify as hedging instruments, more types of risk can be hedged, and even more importantly, the strong effectiveness requirements in IAS 39 have been modified. Instead of testing the effectiveness, IFRS 9 introduces a principle of at qualitative financial connection between a hedging instrument, the hedged object and risk. On the other hand, several new note requirements related to the enterprise's hedging strategy have been added.
The implementation date for IFRS 9 is determined to accounting years starting on 1 January 2018. Ferd will implement the standard when it becomes mandatory and is not expecting any significant effects from the implementation of the standard.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
IFRS 15 is a joint standard for the recognition of income from customers and replaces IAS 18 Revenue, IAS 11 Construction Contracts, IFRS 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes, IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate, IFRIC 18 Transfers of Assets from Customers and SIC 31 Revenue – Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services. IFRS 15 only concerns income from contracts with customers. Revenue relating to liability and equity instruments previously regulated by IAS 18, is moved to IAS 39 (and IFRS 9 when implemented).
The main principle of IFRS 15 is that the recognition of income shall be made in such a manner that it correctly demonstrates how the compensation for deliveries of goods and services is recognised by the enterprise. IFRS 15 introduces a 5 step model for revenue recognition, whereby customer contracts shall be identified and decomposed in separate delivery terms to be priced and recognised separately.
The standard is effective for accounting years starting on 1 January 2018. As an investing company, Ferd AS has limited income from customer contracts and will probably not be significantly impacted by the standard.
IFRS 16 Leases
IFRS 16 replaces the existing IFRS for leases, IAS 17Leases. IFRS 16 states the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure for both parties in a lease agreement, i.e., the customer (lessee) and supplier (lessor). The new standard requires that the lessee recognises assets and liabilities for most lease agreements, which is a significant change from today's principles. For the lessor, IFRS 16 in all essentials carries the existing principles in IAS 17 forward, i.e., a lessor shall continue to classify leases as operating or finance lease agreements and account for them differently.
The new standard is effective for the accounting year starting on 1 January 2019. The standard is not expected to have any significant consequences for Ferd AS.

Strandveien 50
1324 Lysaker

Postbox 34
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Phone 67 10 80 00
Fax 67 10 80 01

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