Annual report 2016

Management has used estimates and assumptions in the preparation of the financial statements. This applies for assets, liabilities, expenses and disclosures. The underlying estimates and assumptions for valuations are based on historical experience and other factors considered to be relevant for the estimate on the balance sheet date. Estimates can differ from actual results. Changes in accounting estimates are recognised in the period they arise. The main balances where estimates have a significant impact on disclosed values are mentioned below. The methods for estimating fair value on financial assets are also described below.
In Ferd's opinion, the estimates of fair value reflect reasonable estimates and assumptions for all significant factors expected to be emphasised by the parties in an independent transactions, including those factors that have an impact on the expected cash flows, and by the degree of risk associated with them.
Determination of the fair value of financial assets
A large part of Ferd's balance sheet comprises financial assets at fair value. The fair value assessment of financial assets will at varying degrees be influenced by estimates and assumptions related to factors like future cash flows, the required rate of return and interest rate level. The most significant uncertainty concerns the determination of fair value of the unlisted financial assets.
Listed shares and bonds
The fair value of financial assets traded in active and liquid markets is determined at noted market prices on the balance sheet date (the official closing price of the market). Accordingly, the determination of the value implies limited estimation uncertainty.
Unlisted shares and bonds
The class “Unlisted shares and bonds” comprises private shares and investments in private equity funds. The fair value is determined by applying well-known valuation models. The use of these models requires input of data that partly constitutes listed market prices (like interest) and partly estimates on the future development, as well as assessments of a number of factors existing on the balance sheet date.
Hedge funds
The hedge funds are managed by external parties providing Ferd with monthly, quarterly or half-yearly estimates of the fair value. The estimates are verified by independent administrators. In addition, the total return from the funds is assessed for reasonableness against benchmark indices.
Investments in interest-bearing debt
The fair value of investments in interest-bearing debt is determined on the basis of quoted prices. If such prices are not available, the investment is valued in accordance with price models based on the current yield curve and external credit ratings.
The fair value of derivatives is based on quoted market prices. If such prices are not available, the investment is valued in accordance with price models based on the current yield curve and other relevant factors.
Determination of the fair value of subsidiaries with properties
Ferd has subsidiaries with properties recognised at fair value. The fair value is based on the discounted value of future cash flows, and the estimate will be impacted by estimated future cash flows and the required rate of return. The main principles for deciding the cash flows and required rates of return are described below.
Future cash flows are based on the following factors:
Existing contracts
Expected future rentals
Expected vacancies
The required rate of return is based on a risk-free interest with the addition of a risk premium for the property.
The risk premium is based on:
Expected market development
Rent level compared to the rest of the market
The tenant’s financial strength
Property specific knowledge
In the event that transactions concerning comparable properties close to the balance sheet date have taken place, these values are applied as a cross-reference for the valuation.
Commercial properties not let out and properties included in building projects are normally assessed at independent valuations.
Determination of the fair value of financial subsidiaries and subsidiaries owned by the business area Ferd Capital
Ferd AS owns investments indirectly through subsidiaries acting as holding companies for these investments. The fair value of these subsidiaries is set to the carrying value of equity, adjusted for non-recognised changes in value of the underlying investments. The underlying investments are valued according to the same principles and methods as Ferd AS' direct investments.

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